Basic Electronics




Electronics is the branch of science that deals with the study of flow and control of electrons (electricity) and the study of their behavior and effects in vacuums, gases, and semiconductors, and with devices using such electrons. This control of electrons is accomplished by devices that resist, carry, select, steer, switch, store, manipulate, and exploit the electron. 



Difference in “Electronics” and “Electrical

Electronics deals with flow of charge (electron) through non-metal conductors (semi-conductors).

Electrical deals with the flow of charge through metal conductors.
Example: Flow of charge through silicon which is not a metal would come under electronics whereas flow of charge through copper which is a metal would come under electrical.



How is Electricity Generated

We all know that everything on earth is made op of atoms. Each atom is made up of electronics which are negatively charged, protons which are positively charged and neutrons which are neutrally charged or they have no charge. The number of electrons and protons in an atom is always same. Look at the picture on the right.
Now what will happen when electronics, by any means, flow away from the atom (Protons cannot flow away from an atom because they are in the inner orbit than electrons and are very tightly and strongly bonded.)? Yes, this flow of electrons produces electricity.
Let us say there are two objects - A and B with 10 electrons each. Due to friction or any other reason, 2 electrons from the outer orbit of A flows away to B. Now there are 8 electrons in A and 12 electrons in B. What is the net result of this flow of electrons? Yes, object A will get negatively charged because of excess electrons and object B will get positively charged because of Deficit of electrons. This is how electricity is produced.

Ohm's Law

Ohm's law states that, in a given electrical circuit, the amount at current in amps is equal to the pressure in volts divided by the resistance in ohms. The formula is: I (Current) = V voltage or V = I x RR resistance or R = V/I.


Electronic Components

Electronic components are basic electronic element or electronic parts usually packaged in a discrete form with two or more connecting leads or metallic pads. Electronic Components are intended to be connected together, usually by soldering to a printed circuit board (PCB), to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, oscillator, wireless). Some of the main Electronic Components are: resistor, capacitor, transistor, diode, operational amplifier, resistor array, logic gate etc.
Electronic components are classed into either being Passive devices or Active devices. Active devices are different from passive devices. These devices are capable of changing their operational performance, may deliver power to the circuit, and can perform interesting mathematical functions. While a device that does not require a source of energy for its operation.


Active Electronic Components

An active device is any type of circuit component with the ability to electrically control electron flow (electricity controlling electricity). In order for a circuit to be properly called electronic, it must contain at least one active device. Active devices include, but are not limited to, vacuum tubes, transistors, silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs), and TRIACs. All active devices control the flow of electrons through them. Some active devices allow a voltage to control this current while other active devices allow another current to do the job.

Passive Electronic Components

Components incapable of controlling current by means of another electrical signal are called passive devices. Resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, and even diodes are all considered passive devices.Electronic Circuit
An Electronic Circuit may be defined as a collection of electronic elements that performs a prescribed function.
Electronic Circuit 

Analog Electronic Circuit

Analog electronic circuits are those in which signals may vary continuously with time to correspond to the information being represented. Electronic equipments like voltage amplifiers, power amplifiers, tuning circuits, radios, and televisions are mainly analog. 



Will Be Continue ....................



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